Pulication Ethics

Law and Economics is referring to Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Details of guideline and international standards could be found on COPE website.

Duties of Authors

  1. Reporting Standars:
    The authors of papers detailing original research have a responsibility to provide readers with an accurate explanation of the work that was carried out as well as a critical discussion of the importance of their findings. The underlying data ought to be reflected in the article in an accurate manner. A document needs to include enough references and specific details to make it possible for other people to replicate the work. Statements that are fraudulent or made with the knowledge that they are untrue represent unethical behavior and are not acceptable.
  2. Data Access and Retention:
    It is requested of authors that they provide the raw data associated with a paper for editorial review. Additionally, authors should be prepared to provide public access to such data (in a manner that is consistent with the ALPSP-STM Statement on Data and Databases), if this is at all possible, and should in any case be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable amount of time after the paper has been published.
  3. Originality and Plagiaris:
    The authors need to ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if they have used the work and/or words of others, they need to ensure that this has been properly cited or quoted. If the authors have used the work and/or words of others, they need to ensure that this has been done appropriately.
  4. Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication:
    In general, a single author should not submit the same research to more than one journal or principal publication with the intention of publishing separate manuscripts reporting the same research. It is unacceptable to engage in unethical publication behavior, which would include submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal at the same time.
  5. Acknowledgement of Sources:
    Always remember to give credit where credit is due and acknowledge the work of others. Publications that have played a significant role in determining the character of the work being described ought to be cited by the authors.
  6. Authorship of the Paper:
    The title of author should only be given to those individuals who have made a major contribution to the conception, design, or implementation of the reported study, as well as to its interpretation. All of the people who have significantly contributed to the project ought to be credited as co-authors. When there are more people who have contributed to the study project by taking part in certain substantial components of it, those people must to be acknowledged or identified as contributors. It is the responsibility of the author who serves as the paper's corresponding author to ensure that all appropriate co-authors are listed, that no inappropriate co-authors are listed, that all appropriate co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper, and that all appropriate co-authors have agreed to the paper's submission for publication.
  7. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
    Every author needs to make clear in their manuscript whether or not they have any financial or other material conflicts of interest that could be interpreted as having an effect on the results or interpretation of their article. It is important that any and all sources of financial assistance for the project be made public.
  8. Fundamental errors in published works:
    When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his or her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If an author fails to fulfill this obligation, the work in question may be retracted or corrected.
  9. Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects:
    If the work contains any chemicals, techniques, or equipment that have any unusual risks inherent in their usage, the author is required to make a clear identification of these risks within the article.

Duties of Editors

  1. Fair Play:
    At any point in time, an editor will examine manuscripts only on the basis of the intellectual content they contain, without taking into account the writers' race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political ideology.
  2. Confidentiality:
    Other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, any editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate, the editor and other editorial staff members are not permitted to divulge any information on a submitted manuscript to any third party.
  3. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
    It is unacceptable for an editor to use any unpublished materials provided in a submitted manuscript in their own study without first obtaining the author's explicit and written permission.
  4. Publication Decisions:
    The editorial board of the journal is the group that is in charge of determining which of the articles that have been sent to the journal should be published. These kinds of decisions must always be driven by the validity of the work in question as well as the value of the work to readers and scholars. The editors may be bound by such legal requirements as shall then be in effect regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editors may also be directed by the principles that have been established by the journal's editorial board. When reaching this decision, the editors might talk it over with any of the other editors or reviewers.
  5. Review of Manuscripts:
    The editor is obligated to do a first originality check on each and every manuscript that is submitted to them. The editor is responsible for organizing and making reasonable use of the peer review process. In the material for authors, the editors of the journal should include an explanation of their peer review processes and also clarify which sections of the publication are subject to peer review. The editor is obligated to hire competent peer reviewers for any papers that are being considered for publication. These reviewers should have sufficient knowledge in the subject matter, and the editor should avoid using reviewers who have competing interests.

Duties of Reviewers

  1. Contribution to Editorial Decisions:
    The editor receives assistance in making editorial decisions thanks to peer review, and the author may also receive assistance in enhancing the article thanks to editorial communications that are had with the editor.
  2. Promptness:
    Any referee who has been chosen to evaluate a manuscript but who either does not feel qualified to evaluate the research that is being reported in the submission or is aware that a prompt examination of the research will be impossible should contact the editor and withdraw himself from the review process.
  3. Standards of Objectivity:
    Evaluations must to be carried out in an impartial manner. It is not appropriate to criticize the author on a personal level. The referees need to articulate their points of view concisely and with supporting reasoning.
  4. Confidentiality:
    Any manuscripts that are sent in for evaluation must be handled with the utmost discretion at all times. These are not to be shown to other people or discussed with anybody else, unless the editor specifically gives permission to do so.
  5. Disclosure and Conflict of Interest:
    It is imperative that any confidential information or ideas received through the process of peer review be safeguarded and not used for one's own benefit. Reviewers shouldn't even bother looking at a manuscript if they have a conflict of interest with it, which could arise from a collaborative relationship, a competitive relationship, or any other kind of relationship or connection with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.
  6. Acknowledgement of Sources:
    The reviewers are tasked with locating relevant published work that was overlooked by the writers and citing it. Any assertion that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously published should be followed with the necessary citation. This applies to any statement that was previously reported. A reviewer is obligated to bring to the attention of the editor any substantial similarities or overlaps that they observe between the manuscript that is being considered for publication and any other published papers of which they are personally aware.